Mr. Santosh Harish, PhD candidate at CMU presented his work at CEEW on the 21st Jan 2014. Two of three research questions in Santosh's PhD research have focused on the implications of unreliability of grid supply in rural areas, and the cross subsidy between urban and rural electricity consumers. The study area was in Karnataka states with a focus on Bangalore and adjoining regions. Apart from the overview and study objectives, Mr. Harish explained the method, theoretical framework, scenarios and study limitations in details. The key policy outcomes of the analysis were that- there is a cost of unreliable grid supply that the rural consumers bear, and till grid reaches these consumers, government should support the penetration of alternative systems for meeting energy service needs of rural consumers; and rural consumers ultimately pay higher tariff for the amounts they consume if other external costs are included in the analysis and hence this set of consumers cross subsidizes the urban consumers.