In recent years, public sector funding, in general, and for the support of activities in developing countries, in particular, has become more and more ‘results’ and ‘performance’ oriented. In this paper, Arunabha Ghosh (CEEW), Benito Müller (Oxford University), William Pizer (Duke University), and Gernot Wagner (Columbia University) look at activities that are associated with quantitative performance indicators, i.e. performance assessed in terms of measured quantities such as tonnes (of carbon), kWh, or hectares as carried out by the private sector. The aim is to review options for the use of such Quantity-Performance (QP) instruments (such as direct purchase, top-up instruments, and tradable put options) as a way of channelling public funds to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective way.
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